Après la bataille de Chéronée, il fait ériger à Olympie, le Philippeion en l'honneur de son père Amyntas III, de sa mère Eurydice, de son épouse Olympias et de son fils Alexandre. [14] Demosthenes also had a daughter, "the only one who ever called him father", according to Aeschines in a trenchant remark. Synopsis. Démosthène - Patrice Brun - La vie et la personnalité de Démosthène ont toujours fasciné les historiens. [145], Demosthenes' fame has continued down the ages. Cette réforme militaire se fait progressivement au cours du règne de Philippe et est en partie responsable des succès de l'armée macédonienne dans le futur, notamment lors de l'expédition d'Alexandre le Grand[1]. [127] This contrast between Demosthenes' intellectual prowess and his deficiencies in terms of vigour, stamina, military skill and strategic vision is illustrated by the inscription his countrymen engraved on the base of his statue:[128]. Upon his return, he "received from his countrymen an enthusiastic welcome, such as had never been accorded to any returning exile since the days of Alkibiades. [120] On the other hand, Polybius, a Greek historian of the Mediterranean world, was highly critical of Demosthenes' policies. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Borja Antela-Bernárdez, Hegemonía y Panhelenismo: Conceptos Políticos en tiempos de Filipo y Alejandro, DHA 33/2, 2007, 69-89. [131] However, he gave the most elaborate preparation to all his speeches and, therefore, his arguments were the products of careful study. [156], The "publication" and distribution of prose texts was common practice in Athens by the latter half of the fourth century BC and Demosthenes was among the Athenian politicians who set the trend, publishing many or even all of his orations. [15] His daughter died young and unmarried a few days before Philip II's death. "[111], Mogens Hansen, however, notes that many Athenian leaders, Demosthenes included, made fortunes out of their political activism, especially by taking bribes from fellow citizens and such foreign states as Macedonia and Persia. "[37] It is unknown whether such vignettes are factual accounts of events in Demosthenes' life or merely anecdotes used to illustrate his perseverance and determination. "And had it not been for the King's magnanimity and regard for his own reputation, their misfortunes would have gone even further, thanks to the policy of Demosthenes". [52] Such rivalry enabled the "demos" or citizen-body to reign supreme as judge, jury and executioner. A regrettable incident is reported. Demosthenes encouraged the fortification of Athens and was chosen by the ekklesia to deliver the Funeral Oration. [82] Just after the conclusion of the Peace of Philocrates, Philip passed Thermopylae, and subdued Phocis; Athens made no move to support the Phocians. He also narrates the following story: Shortly after Harpalus ran away from Athens, he was put to death by the servants who were attending him, though some assert that he was assassinated. "[111] Such a reception, the circumstances of the case, Athenian need to placate Alexander, the urgency to account for the missing funds, Demosthenes' patriotism and wish to set Greece free from Macedonian rule, all lend support to George Grote's view that Demosthenes was innocent, that the charges against him were politically-motivated, and that he "was neither paid nor bought by Harpalus. In his first encounter with Philip, Demosthenes is said to have collapsed from fright. [26] For his part, Aeschines stigmatised his intensity, attributing to his rival strings of absurd and incoherent images. When the committee counted the treasure, they found they only had half the money Harpalus had declared he possessed. [151] French author and lawyer Guillaume du Vair praised his speeches for their artful arrangement and elegant style; John Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury, and Jacques Amyot, a French Renaissance writer and translator, regarded Demosthenes as a great or even the "supreme" orator. Utilizamos cookies para personalizar contenido y anuncios, proporcionar funciones de redes sociales y analizar nuestro tráfico. [178] Another nickname of Demosthenes was "Argas." [80] Despite his suggestions, the Athenian envoys, including himself and Aeschines, remained in Pella, until Philip successfully concluded his campaign in Thrace. 14 Par exemple Pseudo-Plutarque, Vie des dix orateurs, 844F et Plutarque, Vie de Démosthène, 6, 4 et 11, 1 (souffle) ; 6, 3 et 8, 7 (manque de hardiesse). First Philippic 28, cited by J. H. Vince, pp. La vie et la personnalité de Démosthène ont toujours fasciné les historiens. à partir de 306 avant J.-C. Chaque chef. [49] All these speeches, which offer early glimpses of his general principles on foreign policy, such as the importance of the navy, of alliances and of national honour,[50] are prosecutions (γραφὴ παρανόμων, graphē paranómōn) against individuals accused of illegally proposing legislative texts. [76] There is no consensus among scholars either on whether Demosthenes finally delivered Against Meidias or on the veracity of Aeschines' accusation that Demosthenes was bribed to drop the charges. [136] The main criticism of Demosthenes' art, however, seems to have rested chiefly on his known reluctance to speak ex tempore;[137] he often declined to comment on subjects he had not studied beforehand. A project approved by the people is going forward. His father—also named Demosthenes—who belonged to the local tribe, Pandionis, and lived in the deme of Paeania in the Athenian countryside, was a wealthy sword-maker. J.-C., Démosthène prononce la première de ses Olynthiennes afin d'encourager les Athéniens à soutenir militairement la Ligue. According to Jebb, Demosthenes was a true artist who could make his art obey him. Philippe encourage l'Eubée à se révolter contre Athènes avec pour objectif d'empêcher les Athéniens d'aider Olynthe. Athènes vote d'abord l'envoi d'un contingent massif, mais la nouvelle exagérée d'une maladie de Philippe les dissuade de l'envoyer effectivement, à tort : Philippe prend Héraion Teichos et livre la forteresse à la cité de Périnthe, qui avait également fait appel à lui. L'assassin est un jeune noble et garde du corps (sômatophylaque), Pausanias d'Orestide, qui garde une rancune envers le roi après avoir subi un viol[6]. George Grote[111] notes that already thirty years before his death, Demosthenes "took a sagacious and provident measure of the danger which threatened Grecian liberty from the energy and encroachments of Philip." [123] He is criticised for having overrated Athens's capacity to revive and challenge Macedon. In 349 BC, Philip attacked Olynthus, an ally of Athens. However, though he probably continued writing speeches throughout his career,[e] he stopped working as an advocate once he entered the political arena. Les philippiques - sur la couronne - contre ctesiphon GF: Amazon.es: Démosthène, Eschine: Libros en idiomas extranjeros Selecciona Tus Preferencias de Cookies Utilizamos cookies y herramientas similares para mejorar tu experiencia de compra, prestar nuestros servicios, entender cómo los utilizas para poder mejorarlos, y para mostrarte anuncios. E. M. Burke, "The Early Political Speeches of Demosthenes", 180, 183 (note 91); T. N. Habinek. In the case of Aristion, a youth from Plataea who lived for a long time in Demosthenes' house, Aeschines mocks the "scandalous" and "improper" relation. E. Badian, "The Road to Prominence", 29–30; K. Tsatsos. The orator asked the Athenians to choose that which is just and honourable, before their own safety and preservation. Although his father left an estate of nearly fourteen talents (equivalent to about 220 years of a labourer's income at standard wages, or 11 million dollars in terms of median U.S. annual incomes). La haine qui oppose les deux hommes culmine quinze ans après, avec la gifle que Midias assène en plein théâtre à Démosthène alors qu’il finance l’un des chœurs qui s’y produit en l’honneur de Dionysos.Réunis en un même volume, les Contre Aphobos I & II, qui sont les toutes premières compositions de Démosthène, et le Contre Midias permettent de découvrir à la fois l’homme privé et le personnage … Malgré cet échec, Philippe a marqué les cités grecques par sa puissance et les menace désormais directement. Dès lors, il peut s'en emparer facilement en 348 : Olynthe et Stagire (cité natale d'Aristote) sont entièrement rasées et leurs habitants vendus comme esclaves. On dit que Philippe de Macédoine ayant lu quelques harangues que Démosthène avait prononcées contre lui, plein d'admiration avoua de bonne foi, que lui-même il se serait laissé entraîner & lui aurait donné l'armée à commander. [61], Most of Demosthenes' major orations were directed against the growing power of King Philip II of Macedon. À la tête de 10 000 hommes et aidé par les cités d'Éphèse et Cyzique, Parménion remporte plusieurs victoires, comme à Magnésie du Méandre. They were collected for the Library of Alexandria by Callimachus, who believed them genuine. The secret of his power is simple, for it lies essentially in the fact that his political principles were interwoven with his very spirit. [139] According to the Roman statesman, Demosthenes regarded "delivery" (gestures, voice, etc.) [187] Philipp August Böckh also accepted Aeschines's account for an out-of-court settlement, and concluded that the speech was never delivered. À l'été 349 av. [159] In the end, sixty-one orations attributed to Demosthenes survived till the present day (some however are pseudonymous). It is not unlikely that he became a teacher of rhetoric and that he brought pupils into court with him. E. M. Harris, "Demosthenes' Speech against Meidias", 117–118; J. H. Vince. [27] According to Sir Richard C. Jebb, a British classical scholar, "the intercourse between Isaeus and Demosthenes as teacher and learner can scarcely have been either very intimate or of very long duration". To secure their allegiance, Demosthenes was sent by Athens, to the Boeotian city; Philip also sent a deputation, but Demosthenes succeeded in securing Thebes' allegiance. Il entreprend dans ce contexte de profondes réformes administratives en mêlant les institutions traditionnelles macédoniennes et celles de la Ligue chalcidienne : la Macédoine est ainsi divisée en quatre districts régionaux (ou mérides) autour de communautés civiques (cités ou ethné). [47] Meidias was a friend of Eubulus and supporter of the unsuccessful excursion in Euboea. Vol. Demosthenes dealt in policies and ideas, and war was not his business. [54], In 354 BC, Demosthenes delivered his first political oration, On the Navy, in which he espoused moderation and proposed the reform of the symmoriai (boards) as a source of funding for the Athenian fleet. "Argas" was a poetical word for a snake, but also the name of a poet. Demosthenes was born in 384 BC, during the last year of the 98th Olympiad or the first year of the 99th Olympiad. In Parallel Lives, Plutarch states that Demosthenes built an underground study where he practised speaking and shaving one half of his head so that he could not go out in public. [140] Although he lacked Aeschines' charming voice and Demades' skill at improvisation, he made efficient use of his body to accentuate his words. Philippe intervient ensuite dans la troisième guerre sacrée, à l'appel de Thèbes et de la Ligue thessalienne. But, O gracious Neptune, I, for my part, while I am yet alive, arise up and depart out of this sacred place; though Antipater and the Macedonians have not left so much as the temple unpolluted." Fort d’une armée qu'il a reformée, Philippe affronte et vainc d'abord les Péoniens qui menacent le Nord de la Macédoine. Because in his heart he knows, and is confident, and has learned to trust the State, that no one shall seize or insult or strike him. The instant this court rises, each of you will walk home, one quicker, another more leisurely, not anxious, not glancing behind him, not fearing whether he is going to run up against a friend or an enemy, a big man or a little one, a strong man or a weak one, or anything of that sort. Editorial: Fayard. [94] Demosthenes however reversed Aeschines' initiatives and Athens finally abstained. D. Braund, "The Bosporan Kings and Classical Athens", 200. "[131] In this judgement, Peck agrees with Jaeger, who said that the imminent political decision imbued Demosthenes' speech with a fascinating artistic power. Cette première campagne n’est pas couronnée de succès, et rares sont les cités grecques qui se déclarent en faveur des Macédoniens. », Les causes de l’assassinat de Philippe et ses conséquences, Chronologie des campagnes d'Alexandre le Grand, Tactique militaire utilisée par Alexandre le Grand, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philippe_II_(roi_de_Macédoine)&oldid=177440593, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Article de Wikipédia avec notice d'autorité, Portail:Biographie/Articles liés/Politique, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, Arnaldo Momigliano, Antoine Malamoud et Giampiera Arrigoni. E.M. Harris, "Demosthenes' Speech against Meidias". [79] He expected that he would hold safely any Athenian possessions that he might seize before the ratification. Philoxenus proceeded to examine the slave, "until he learned everything about such as had allowed themselves to accept a bribe from Harpalus." [h], In 348 BC, Philip conquered Olynthus and razed it to the ground; then conquered the entire Chalcidice and all the states of the Chalcidic federation that Olynthus had once led. [8], Demosthenes started to learn rhetoric because he wished to take his guardians to court and because he was of "delicate physique" and could not receive gymnastic education, which was customary. Les historiens et archéologues estiment que le corps de Philippe a été placé dans la nécropole royale de Vergina, site grec correspondant à celui de l'antique Aigai, première capitale du royaume de Macédoine, la tombe exacte faisant encore l'objet de discussions entre spécialistes[8]. He was a master at "self-fashioning" by referring to his previous accomplishments, and renewing his credibility. [38], To make his living, Demosthenes became a professional litigant, both as a "logographer" (λογογράφος, logographos), writing speeches for use in private legal suits, and as an advocate (συνήγορος, sunégoros) speaking on another's behalf. During the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Demosthenes had a reputation for eloquence. However, at this early stage of his career, his writing was not yet remarkable for its subtlety, verbal precision and variety of effects. In this he towers above the greatest of his predecessors. [111], In Demosthenes' initial judicial orations, the influence of both Lysias and Isaeus is obvious, but his marked, original style is already revealed. [96], At the same time, Athens orchestrated the creation of an alliance with Euboea, Megara, Achaea, Corinth, Acarnania and other states in the Peloponnese. [170], b. [129], According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, Demosthenes represented the final stage in the development of Attic prose. [62] In 352 BC, Demosthenes characterised Philip as the very worst enemy of his city; his speech presaged the fierce attacks that Demosthenes would launch against the Macedonian king over the ensuing years. Philippe puis il a promu la création du Ligue de Corinthe qui unit les villes grecques, à l'exception Sparte. [26] Most of his extant speeches for private cases—written early in his career—show glimpses of talent: a powerful intellectual drive, masterly selection (and omission) of facts, and a confident assertion of the justice of his case, all ensuring the dominance of his viewpoint over his rival. Démosthène. À l’automne, il intervient en Thessalie à l’appel de la cité de Larissa, ennemie de Phères. [177] In fact the word actually defining his speech defect was "Battalos", signifying someone with rhotacism, but it was crudely misrepresented as "Batalos" by the enemies of Demosthenes and by Plutarch's time the original word had already lost currency. Philippe perd un œil au cours de la bataille. According to historian Thomas Babington Macaulay, in his time the division between political and military offices was beginning to be strongly marked. It has often been argued that the deception, if there was one, involved a political quid pro quo, whereby Apollodorus secretly pledged support for unpopular reforms that Demosthenes was pursuing in the greater, public interest[44] (i.e. Since Athenian politicians were often indicted by their opponents, there was not always a clear distinction between "private" and "public" cases, and thus a career as a logographer opened the way for Demosthenes to embark on his political career. En 338 av. Philippe II (en grec ancien : Φίλιππος / Phílippos), né en 382 av. The wording is even more telling in Greek, ending with an accumulation of plosive pi sounds: οὐ μόνον οὐχ Ἕλληνος ὄντος οὐδὲ προσήκοντος οὐδὲν τοῖς Ἕλλησιν, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ βαρβάρου ἐντεῦθεν ὅθεν καλὸν εἰπεῖν, ἀλλ᾽ ὀλέθρου Μακεδόνος, ὅθεν οὐδ᾽ ἀνδράποδον σπουδαῖον οὐδὲν ἦν πρότερον πρίασθαι. Since 357 BC, when Philip seized Amphipolis and Pydna, Athens had been formally at war with the Macedonians. Il donne à son armée un entraînement strict et un armement repensé : le soldat macédonien reçoit un armement défensif (armure, cnémides, bouclier) plus léger que celui de l'hoplite, dont l'ensemble de l'équipement pèse environ 35 kg. He reminds one of an old sprain or fracture: the moment you are out of health it begins to be active. Cela permet d'équiper bien plus de soldats, sans porter atteinte à la qualité de ses troupes. To prevent a similar revolt against his own rule, Alexander's successor in this region, Antipater, sent his men to track Demosthenes down. [69], From this moment until 341 BC, all of Demosthenes' speeches referred to the same issue, the struggle against Philip. J.-C., devient rapidement une alliance militaire (symmachie) ayant pour finalité l'invasion de l'Asie Mineure alors sous la tutelle des Perses achéménides, le prétexte étant de venger la profanation des sanctuaires grecs lors des guerres médiques et de « libérer » les cités grecques d'Ionie et de Lydie notamment. [23] Lucian, a Roman-Syrian rhetorician and satirist, lists the philosophers Aristotle, Theophrastus and Xenocrates among his teachers. [123] Nevertheless, the same scholar underscores that "pragmatists" like Aeschines or Phocion had no inspiring vision to rival that of Demosthenes. In 347 BC, an Athenian delegation, comprising Demosthenes, Aeschines and Philocrates, was officially sent to Pella to negotiate a peace treaty. For this depends upon his own nature; while his power and his influence are determined by external causes. Ayant mis fin aux différends qui opposaient les cités grecques entre elles, Philippe aurait déclaré : « J'ai fait le bornage de la terre de Pélops »[Note 1]. E. M. Burke, "The Early Political Speeches of Demosthenes", 188–189. [16] In another speech, Aeschines brings up the pederastic relation of his opponent with a boy called Cnosion. According to Jacqueline de Romilly, a French philologist and member of the Académie française, the threat of Philip would give Demosthenes' stances a focus and a raison d'être. [28] Demosthenes is also said to have admired the historian Thucydides. También compartimos información sobre cómo usted utiliza nuestro sitio con nuestros socios de redes sociales, de publicidad y de analítica. ¡Descárgate ya la versión de eBook! [180], f. ^ "Theorika" were allowances paid by the state to poor Athenians to enable them to watch dramatic festivals. [26] Konstantinos Tsatsos, a Greek professor and academician, believes that Isaeus helped Demosthenes edit his initial judicial orations against his guardians. D. M. MacDowell, Demosthenes the Orator, ch. [176] The word "batalus" was also used by the Athenians to describe the anus. [154] French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau was among those who idealised Demosthenes and wrote a book about him. Had you for Greece been strong, as wise you were, the Macedonian would not have conquered her. La mort de Philippe ne change rien aux plans d'invasion : Parménion fait allégeance à Alexandre qui rejoint le corps expéditionnaire à Abydos en mai 334. [106], According to ancient writers, Demosthenes called Alexander "Margites" (Greek: Μαργίτης)[107][108][109] and a boy. Il est probable que Philippe songe à utiliser cette dernière contre les Perses. "[192] On the other hand, Plutarch believes that Harpalus sent Demosthenes a cup with twenty talents and that "Demosthenes could not resist the temptation, but admitting the present, ... he surrendered himself up to the interest of Harpalus. Mais le siège de Pitané échoue, malgré l’arrivée de renforts et il doit se replier en Troade, puis à Abydos. [190], k. ^ The exact chronology of Harpalus's entrance into Athens and of all the related events remains a debated topic among modern scholars, who have proposed different, and sometimes conflicting, chronological schemes. [81], Philip swore to the treaty, but he delayed the departure of the Athenian envoys, who had yet to receive the oaths from Macedon's allies in Thessaly and elsewhere. These developments worried Philip and increased his anger at Demosthenes. [179], e. ^ Both Tsatsos and Weil maintain that Demosthenes never abandoned the profession of the logographer, but, after delivering his first political orations, he wanted to be regarded as a statesman. He was unrepentant about his past actions and policies and insisted that, when in power, the constant aim of his policies was the honour and the ascendancy of his country; and on every occasion and in all business he preserved his loyalty to Athens. In the Illiterate Book-Fancier, Lucian mentions eight beautiful copies of Thucydides made by Demosthenes, all in Demosthenes' own handwriting. [90] He also negotiated with the Athenians an amendment to the Peace of Philocrates. Philippi - P. Collart: Philippes, Ville de Macédoine. ^ According to Edward Cohen, professor of Classics at the University of Pennsylvania, Cleoboule was the daughter of a Scythian woman and of an Athenian father, Gylon, although other scholars insist on the genealogical purity of Demosthenes. [196] Of Demosthenes's corpus political speeches, J. H. Vince singles out five as spurious: On Halonnesus, Fourth Philippic, Answer to Philip's Letter, On Organization and On the Treaty with Alexander.